AHP-OS and Farsi

Thanks to the feedback of a user from Iran, I found out that AHP-OS is working with RTL fonts like Farsi. It is important to add the semicolon to the right end of a node definition, and use latin punctuation marks, for example:

کاربری: مسکونی , تجاری , اداری ;

A simple decision hierarchy example looks like here:

farsi

Unfortunately, I am not able to check for a hierarchy with more than one level. If anyone could provide a 2 level hierarchy, I would appreciate. Arabic fonts should work too; kindly contact me, if you have an example.

 

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  • process hierarchy
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Group Decision Making with AHP-OS

My AHP free online software AHP-OS has a feature to involve a group of decision makers to give their inputs to a decision problem. In contrast to my AHP Excel template, in AHP-OS the number of participants is practically unlimited. As of now, I see users having up to 100 participants in one project.

How to use AHP-OS for Group Decision Making?

As registered user you need to start with a new project by defining your decision hierarchy. In the Project Administration Menu click on New, define your hierarchy, Submit and Save as project. You have the possibility to give a short project description, explaining the project, before it is saved.

Once saved, you will be automatically brought back to your project page, and the project will be shown on top of your project list.

grdecproject

The session code is a unique code identifying the project. When you click on the session code link, the Group Session Input screen will open, and you see a message like “Hierarchy evaluation. Session code EvUhUn Session Chair: Klaus. Project has 0 participants’ inputs. You are participating as Klaus.” Now you can either participate yourself as a decision maker in the project, or get a link to provide to your participants for their inputs.

Participating by yourself as a member of the group

Simply click on the AHP button to start the pairwise comparisons, and – once completed – click on Submit for group eval to submit your inputs.

Provide a link to let others participate as members of the group

In the group input menu click on Leave group input mode and confirm ok to leave the input mode without submitting your pairwise comparisons in the pop-up window.

groupinpmenu

Now you will see the link that you can copy/paste and send to your group members for their participation in the project.

grouplink

Click on Done in the Active session menu to go back to your project list.

Participants input

Your participants don’t need to be registered users. If you want to test by yourself, you need to logout from AHP-OS, before you open the group link.

When your participants open the link, they will be asked for their name, before they can start their pairwise comparisons. They will then see the decision hierarchy with a red lined AHP button and  a message “Click on AHP to complete pairwise comparisons. Click on Submit for group eval once completed.”

grhier1

Now they can start their pairwise comparisons. When completed, all AHP buttons and priorities will be marked green.

grhier2

After a click on Submit for group eval the AHP button disappears and a message “Ok. Data were submitted. Thank You for your participation!” is displayed.

Group results

Once you have participants submitted data, a click on the session code link in your project list will automatically bring you to the group result page. As a participant you will get a button View group result in the Group input menu.

groupinpmenu1

The group result page gives you on top the project data and list of all participants. Individual participants can be selected or deselected to analyze the group results in further details.

projdata  partlist

The next sections of the group result page shows the decision hierarchy with consolidated priorities, a breakdown by nodes (categories) with priorities for the node and the consolidated (aggregated) decision matrix. It also shows the AHP consensus indicator as a measure of group consensus.

grresult

Input data for each participant is available under View Input Data in the group result menu:

groupresmenu

For you as chair of the group session, it is also possible to download data as csv text file for further processing in a spreadsheet program. With Use consol. priorities you now can define Alternatives with the consolidated priorities of selected participants.

 

 

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AHP Online Software CSV Data Export

AHP-OS allows for downloading your project data as a comma separated value text file. The following menus include a csv download key:

  • Hierarchy Input Menu – download the AHP hierarchy
  • Group Result Menu – download resulting priorities and consolidated (aggregated) decision matrix
  • Project Data Menu – download decision matrices for all individual participants

Depending on your regional settings of your PC, for each download you can select the decimal point or decimal comma as decimal separator.

Text encoding of the CVS file is UTF-8. If you are using country specific characters and Windows Excel, you can convert from UTF-8 to ANSI. Open the CSV file with notepad, and save as a new file with Encoding set to ANSI.

 

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AHP Online Software – Decision Matrices – Update 2016-11-02

With the latest update of my AHP-OS online software you can now view and download the decision matrices of all participant. The group result menu was extended by a selection View Input Data:

g-result-menu

From there you reach the Project Detailed Input page, which shows the decision matrix for each individual participant and all nodes of the hierarchy:

projectinputdata

The project data menu has the button to download the data in csv format:

p-data-menu

The csv file contains the basic project data – Session Code, Project Name, Project description, Author, Date, Type of evaluation, Number of Participants – as well as all input decision matrices sorted by participant and nodes (categories of the hierarchy) or criteria for alternative evaluation.

With the Back link you can go back to the Group Result Page.

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AHP Online Software – Latest Update 2016-10-29

Based on the request from some users I have modified the result display of my AHP-OS online software. Beside the resulting priorities it is now possible to see the underlying consolidated decision matrix, which results from the aggregation of individual judgments (AIJ) using the geometric mean.

Decision Hierarchies

For decision hierarchies the result page shows the resulting local and global priorities (overall result) in hierarchical form, and the global priorities in descending order in a bar graph.

Then, in a breakdown by nodes, consolidated priorities, consolidated decision matrix and the priorities of individual participants are shown:

ahp-result
As in this example, the consolidated matrix for one participant is the same as the AHP decision matrix.

Alternative Evaluation

For alternative evaluation the breakdown is done by criteria. It shows the consolidated preferences for all alternatives with respect to each of the criteria:

ahp-result1

In this example the House A from the alternative houses A, B, C has the best match with respect to the criterion “Size”.

Outlook

I am now working on the extension to let you download the complete set of input values, i.e. all underlying decision matrices, to excel. In the current version only the resulting AHP priorities are available.

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AHP Frequently Asked Questions

Over the year I receive many questions about AHP, my AHP excel template and my AHP online Software. Here a selection of frequently asked questions:

General Questions

Q: I have 15 criteria and 20 alternatives, can you extend your template/software?
A: The excel template can handle up to 10 criteria, my online software is limited to 12 criteria (in one hierarchy level) and 10 alternatives. In principle it could be extended, but the limitation is inherit to the AHP method. Please read my explanations here.

Q: I have more than 10 alternatives, can I use AHP for priority evaluation of criteria and a different method for the evaluation of alternatives?
A: Yes, you can combine AHP for criteria evaluation with another method for alternative evaluation. Alternative evaluation could be done for example using a simple table with a yes/no or applicable/not applicable scale, or any other scale, e.g. Likert scale, how good the individual alternative matches the specific criterion.

Q: I have 150 participants, can I use your excel template/software?
A: My AHP excel template is limited to 20 inputs, my AHP online software can handle a (practically) unlimited number of participants. Use the AHP online software.

Q: How can I resolve the inconsistency (CR>0.1), when participants are done with their pairwise comparisons.
A: Once the pairwise comparison is done and submitted, data can not be changed and consistency ratio is what it is. Ask your decision makers to adjust their judgments  in direction of the most consistent input during the pair-wise comparisons for the highlighted three most inconsistent comparisons. Please see also my posting here.

Q: Can I use the Likert scale instead of the AHP scale?
A: No, AHP is based on the rational scale 1/9 … 1 … 9. It cannot be replaced by the Likert scale.

Q: Do you support Fuzzy AHP?
A: No, I have made no provisions to support Fuzzy AHP, neither in Excel, nor in my online software.

Q: How is the computation done, where do I find the description and formulas?
A: Please download the manual for the excel template from here, and the software description from here.

Q: How can I cite your work, can you give me a reference?
A: Please cite my paper: Implementing the analytic hierarchy process as a standard method for multi-criteria decision making in corporate enterprises–a new AHP excel template with multiple inputs

AHP Excel template

Q: Can I extend the number of participants to more than 20?
A: Though it is possible in principle, the better way is to use my AHP online software with (practically) unlimited number of participants. I will not do a further extension of the template.

Q: Do you have a version of the Excel template w/o multiple inputs?
A: Yes, a simplified version is available on request from the author.

Q: How can I do alternative evaluation using your Excel template.
A: It is not possible. The template can only handle one category of a hierarchy and calculate the priority of one set of criteria.

AHP Online software

Q: If I have a group of decision makers, do they need to register for the online software?
A: No, they don’t need to register. As the owner of a project you get a link for group decision inputs. Simply send them the link, and they can start the pairwise comparisons.

Q: Can I erase/delete inputs from individual participants from the group results?
A: Sorry, at the moment there is no possibility to erase/delete inputs of individual participants. You can open a project with participants’ input and click “Use consol. priorities”. Then “Reset priorities” and “Save hierarchy”. Then you will have the same hierarchy as a new project without participants’ input.

Q: The alternative evaluation is not working?
A: Criteria evaluation (priorities) and alternative evaluation have to be handled as two different projects. Only when you have a decision hierarchy with completed comparisons and evaluated priorities, you can define the alternatives from the group result page clicking on “Use consol. priorities”. Define number and name of alternatives from there and save as new project. Hierarchy evaluation and alternative evaluation projects appear as type “H” for the first and type “A” for the latter in your project list.

Q: Can I get the source code of your online software?
A: Sorry, it is not an open source project.

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AHP Online System

As I was asked by many visitors, how to evaluate priorities and alternatives for a whole project in AHP, I have realized an online solution, where you can define a hierarchy, get the priorities for all categories and evaluate alternatives. The project is realized in PHP.
AHP OS Example

Here the link: BPMSG AHP Online System

How to use the tool

Short description  (pdf) for download.

The online template is easy to use, three steps are necessary:

  1. Define the objective and relevant criteria of your decision problem and structure them in a hierarchy.
  2. Compare criteria in categories and sub-categories with respect to the objective to find their weights based on pairwise comparisons.,
  3. Name a set of alternatives and compare, how good they match your decision criteria. Again pairwise comparisons based on the AHP are used.

1. Define Hierarchy

Hierarchies are defined in a text field using the following simple syntax:

Each branch in the hierarchy is defined by its node (the category) and the node’s leafs (the sub-categories). The node is followed by a colon, leafs are separated by comma, and a branch is closed by a semicolon:

category: sub-category 1, sub-category 2, sub-category 3;

If a sub-category branches out in further sub-categories, you add a line, repeating the sub-category’s name (case sensitive!) as a new node, i.e. followed by a colon:

sub-category 1: sub-sub-1, sub-sub-2;

2. Compare Criteria

To find the weight (importance) of criteria, click AHP to start pairwise comparisons. Compare each pair of criteria with respect to the project and category: which criterion in each pair is more important, and how much more on a 1 – 9 scale? Once you have finished click Calculate Result. A table with priorities for each criterion is shown.

It could happen that your pairwise comparison is not consistent, then the most inconsistent judgments are highlighted, and the most consistent judgment is marked light green. In order to improve consistency, check whether you are able to adjust your original mark by plus or minus two on the scale. Click Calculate to re-calculate. Once finished, and you are satisfied with you answers, press Submit Priorities to submit. Completed branches in the hierarchy tree are marked green.

When all comparisons in the hierarchy are done, you might continue to evaluate alternatives. Press Evaluate Alternatives. Note: You only get the selection, if all necessary pairwise comparisons are completed, or the hierarchy text input already contains pre-defined priorities. A table with criteria and alternatives will be displayed.

3. Evaluation of Alternatives

Before you start the evaluation, you might input the number and names of your decision alternatives. Enter the number (1 – 5) and press Go. Then input the names of alternatives and press ok. The procedure of pairwise comparisons is exactly the same as for the criteria. Each completed comparison is highlighted in green. When all evaluations are done, the result is shown.

4. Download

You might download the data in csv format (comma separated values) for further processing in a spread sheet program. The table starts with a title line; then each row shows one criterion with the columns: (hierarchy level, local priority), global priority, alternatives (local and global priority).

All (decision) matrices are shown below, with category name as heading and criteria for the matrix rows. Alternatives show the heading “Alternatives for” and the respective criterion.

More Examples

Program Limitations and Input Restrictions

  • Display length of category names: 25 characters max.
  • Hierarchy levels 6 max.
  • Nodes: 15 max.
  • Each node (category) has to have at least 2 branches (sub-categories)
  • Endnodes: 100 max.
  • Names of categories/sub-categories have to be unique.
  • Numbers as category names are not allowed (though names may contain numbers).
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AHP Online Calculator – Update 2013-12-20

In this latest version of the AHP online calculator I made some changes:

  • The three judgments with highest inconsistency will be highlighted with the last column showing the recommended judgment for lowest inconsistency
  • Selection of fundamental AHP or balanced Scale
  • Number of Criteria changed from 12 to 15 max.1)
  • Length of criteria names changed from 15 to max. 20 characters
  • Download of result (decision matrix, eigen vector, CR) as csv (comma separated values) instead of txt file

The .csv  file uses “,” as field separator and “.” as decimal symbol (unchanged). Depending on your operating system it will directly open in Excel.

1) Important Note: Though the maximum number of criteria is 15, you should always try to structure your decision problem in a way that the number of criteria is in the range Seven Plus or Minus Two.

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AHP Online Calculator

Calculate priorities from pairwise comparisons using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) with eigen vector method. Input the number of criteria  between 3 and 15 1) and a name for each criterion. Next, do a pairwise comparison: Which of the criteria in each pair is more important, and how many times more, on the 1 to 9 scale. With “Calculate Result” you will then get the resulting priorities, their ranking, and a consistency ratio CR2) (ideally < 10%).  Calculation can be done using the fundamental 1 to 9 AHP ratio scale or the balanced scale from Salo and Hämäläinen3).

The three judgments with highest inconsistency will be highlighted, with the last column showing the recommended judgment for lowest consistency ratio. Slightly modify your comparisons, if you want to improve consistency, and recalculate the result, or download the result as a csv file.

Example of inconsistent pair-wise comparisons. The most inconsistent judgment no 2 is marked in red (Color or Delivery); the consistent judgment would be 3 (B) and is highlighted in light green. Decision makers can decide to adjust some of their original judgments to improve consistency.

The AHP online calculator part of BPMSG’s free web-based AHP online software AHP-OS. If you need to handle a complete decision hierarchy, group inputs and alternative evaluation, use AHP-OS.

Here the link: AHP priority calculator

Please make reference to the author and website, when you use the online calculator for your work. For terms of use please see our user agreement and privacy policy.

Format of the csv file

Fields are separated by tabs:

  • Line 1: Date (yyyy-mm-dd)  Time (hh:mm:ss) Title (text)
  • Line 2: Number of criteria n
  • Line 3: Criteria
  • Line 4 to 4+n: Decison matrix
  • Second last line:  Priority vector
  • Last line: eigen value and consistency ratio CR

References

1) Though the maximum number of criteria is 15, you should always try to structure your decision problem in a way that the number of criteria is in the range 5 to 9. See here.

2) Alonso, Lamata, (2006). Consistency in the analytic hierarchy process: a new approach. International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness and Knowledge based systems, Vol 14, No 4, 445-459.

3) Salo, A., Hämäläinen, R. (1997). On the measurement of preferences in the analytic hieerarchy process. Journal of multi-criteria decision analysis, Vol 6, 309-319.

Incoming search terms:

  • AHP online
  • ahp online calculator
  • Excel Pairwise Comparison Calculator
  • pairwise comparison calculator
  • ahp calculations in excel
  • AHPOnlineCalculator|BPMSG
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BPMSG Diversity Online Calculator

If you need a quick calculation of diversity indices from your sample data, you might use my online diversity calculator here. Select the number of categories/classes (2 to 20) and input your samples data (positive integer or decimal numbers). As a result the following parameters and diversity indices will be calculated:

  • Richness
  • Berger-Parker Index
  • Shannon Entropy (nat)
  • Shannon number equivalent (true diversity of order 1)
  • Shannon Equitability
  • Simpson Dominance
  • Simpson Dominance (finite sample size)
  • True diversity of order 2
  • Gini-Simpson Index
  • Gini-Simpson Equitability

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  • online software for shanone wevet index
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